DNA technology plays an important role in forensics. After the advancement of a DNA technology, many big crimes have been solved. We can say DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting which is used in Forensic Science. Experts use this DNA to investigate the crimes and this technology is the main reason that even past crimes are also solved which were mystery at one stage.
How to do DNA fingerprintor Genetic fingerprint technique
In starting, RFLP technology was used. In this technology, extracted DNA from samples of blood, urine, hair or semen is cut at specific points along the strands of protein which is also known as restriction Enzymes. This Enzymes are very helpful in cutting the DNA into fragments. These DNA are separated according to their sizes. This separation is done by the process called as agarose gel electrophoresis and later transferred to the membrane through a procedure known Southern Blot procedure. Then this membrane is hybridized to a labeled DNA probe which determines the length of the fragments. Now, PCR technique is more used. It is divided into two such as micro satellites and mini satellites. We also can use short tandem repeats for micro satellites because only 2-4 base pairs are used and for mini satellite, we use 10 to 100 base pairs.
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